|non-copper fluid (containing 6% nitrogen)|
Plants are unable to absorb the protein as it is. They can only absorb the amino acids released from the protein after decomposition. Thus, for agricultural agents, the key is whether they contain 100% amino acids. Sometimes the plants absorb the amino acids released from the protein through the action of soil microbes; however, the process of decomposition in this way takes a considerable amount of time. Categorizing such processes according to the manufacturing technique, except in the case of acid-base hydrolysis, 100% decomposition is an almost unreachable goal when it is mediated through fermentation or microbial activities, which also cause too much froth or the characteristic malodor. When plants are cultivated using 100% animal amino acids such as glutamine, asparagine, arginine, citrulline, and ornithine as the only nitrogen source, they often show healthier growth than when the nitrogen source included the ammonia or nitric acid from chemical fertilizers. In particular, in an environment with cold climate or conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis, the insufficient production of glucose or ATP result in shortage of energy necessary for the absorption and assimilation of inorganic compounds by the roots. Here, the amino acids can be absorbed by the roots and go through the immediate amino group transfer to become the central players of nitrogen metabolism like arginine or glutamic acid, thereby helping the plant grow with better stability than the inorganic nitrogen. In addition, even when the conditions are normal, the addition of around 10ppm of amino acids has been shown to promote healthy growth.
|amino acid type||Arg||His||Lys||Tyr||Phe||Cys||Met||Ser||Thr||Leu||Ile||Val||Glu||Asp||Gly||Ala||Pro||T/N|
|goose feather||6.3||0.3||1.4||3.6||3.6||11.0||0.3||12.0||5.3||7.5||4.6||7.7||8.8||7.1||7.1||3.9||9.5||about 16.5|
For example, cysteine and methionine, the sulphur-based amino acids, are known to be effective for helping the plant overcome the physiological obstacles posed by chilly injury or low solar radiation; leucine is effective for facilitating fruit coloration; arginine for suppressing pathogenic growth; and glycine and alanine for increasing the sugar content. Moreover, amino acids provide the nutrients for soil microbes to not only prevent soil acidification but also reduce soil salination effectively. Such actions lead to soil erosion, which improves moisture retention for fixing various nutrients as well as soil fertility. The effects also include the prevention of nitrate-N accumulation, a factor causing the Alzheimer’s in human, thereby ensuring the production of safe agricultural products.
L-cystine and L-cysteine that contain sulphur, as well as their precursors, exhibit remarkable bioactivity. Among them, a novel active amino acid called AP-101 has been shown to facilitate the production of ATP even when the plant is in a hostile environment, providing the energy necessary for plant metabolism and inducing fruit enlargement and maturing. Thus, it has led to the production of high-quality agricultural products and improved yield without the help from plant growth regulators. In particular, in an environment unfavorable for photosynthesis due to cold temperature or low solar radiation so that the production of glucose or ATP is difficult, AP-101 can be an effective tonic for the plants.
The sulphur-based amino acids also play a key role in strengthening the plant immunity, and the substances that are produced and secured for fighting against the invading pathogens are called phytoalexin. In particular, there are sakuranetin and momilactone A that are produced from the sulphur-based amino acids for the rice blast disease, and studying their synthesis and composition is expected to lead to a method for improving the immunity in rice and reduce the use of agricultural pesticides significantly.
Furthermore, as most substances belonging to phytoalexin are antioxidants such as beta carotene, lycopene, capsaicin, lutein, caffeine, isoflavone, and anthocyanin, applying specific amino acids to the plants is expected not only to improve the plant immunity and reduce the use of agricultural pesticides, but also to allow the cultivation of unique agricultural products; for example, tomato with high lycopene content, chilli with high capsaicin content, and spinach and kale with high lutein content, which are all useful to human health.
Moreover, phytoalexin may be the key element of the next generation anti-aging business in response to the aging society and disease cure, as they lead to the development of functional antioxidant food products or novel immunomodulators.
When a pathogen invades the plant, the defensive substances are produced and secured for fighting against the pathogens. Such substances include beta carotene, lycopene, capsaicin, lutein, caffeine, isoflavone, and anthocyanin, which are also the antioxidants useful to human health. In particular, a phytoalexin found in grapes called resveratrol has already been developed into an anticancer agent. Aminopia
Plant immunity improvement, Environment-friendly and low-pesticide cultivation
Cultivation of plants containing highconcentration antioxidants → Development of antioxidant food products
Development of novel anticancer drugs based on immunomodulators
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